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INDEX.

Aberrant groups

Abyssinia, plants of

Acclimatisation

Adoxa

Affinities of extinct species
--of organic beings

Agassiz on Amblyopsis
--on groups of species suddenly appearing --on prophetic forms
--on embryological succession
--on the Glacial period
--on embryological characters
--on the latest tertiary forms
--on parallelism of embryological development and geological succession --Alex., on pedicellariae

Algae of New Zealand

Alligators, males, fighting

Alternate generations

Amblyopsis, blind fish

America, North, productions allied to those of Europe --boulders and glaciers of
--South, no modern formations on west coast

Ammonites, sudden extinction of

Anagallis, sterility of

Analogy of variations

Andaman Islands inhabited by a toad

Ancylus

Animals, not domesticated from being variable --domestic; descended from several stocks --acclimatisation of

Animals of Australia
--with thicker fur in cold climates
--blind, in caves
--extinct, of Australia

Anomma

Antarctic islands, ancient flora of

Antechinus

Ants attending aphides
--slave-making instinct
--neuters, structure of

Apes, not having acquired intellectual powers

Aphides attended by ants

Aphis, development of

Apteryx

Arab horses

Aralo-Caspian Sea

Archeopteryx

Archiac, M. de, on the succession of species

Artichoke, Jerusalem

Ascension, plants of

Asclepias, pollen of

Asparagus

Aspicarpa

Asses, striped
--improved by selection

Ateuchus

Aucapitaine, on land-shells

Audubon, on habits of frigate-bird
--on variation in birds' nests
--on heron eating seeds

Australia, animals of
--dogs of
--extinct animals of
--European plants in
--glaciers of

Azara, on flies destroying cattle

Azores, flora of

Babington, Mr., on British plants

Baer, Von, standard of Highness
--comparison of bee and fish
--embryonic similarity of the Vertebrata

Baker, Sir S., on the giraffe

Balancement of growth

Baleen

Barberry, flowers of

Barrande, M., on Silurian colonies
--on the succession of species
--on parallelism of palaeozoic formations --on affinities of ancient species

Barriers, importance of

Bates, Mr., on mimetic butterflies

Batrachians on islands

Bats, how structure acquired
--distribution of

Bear, catching water-insects

Beauty, how acquired

Bee, sting of
--queen, killing rivals
--Australian, extermination of

Bees, fertilizing flowers
--hive, not sucking the red clover
--hive, cell-making instinct
--Ligurian
--variation in habits

Bees, parasitic
--humble, cells of

Beetles, wingless, in Madeira
--with deficient tarsi

Bentham, Mr., on British plants
--on classification

Berkeley, Mr., on seeds in salt-water

Bermuda, birds of

Birds acquiring fear
--beauty of
--annually cross the Atlantic
--colour of, on continents
--footsteps, and remains of, in secondary rocks --fossil, in caves of Brazil
--of Madeira, Bermuda, and Galapagos
--song of males
--transporting seeds
--waders
--wingless

Bizcacha, affinities of

Bladder for swimming, in fish

Blindness of cave animals

Blyth, Mr., on distinctness of Indian cattle --on striped Hemionus
--on crossed geese

Borrow, Mr., on the Spanish pointer

Bory St. Vincent, on Batrachians

Bosquet, M., on fossil Chthamalus

Boulders, erratic, on the Azores

Branchiae
--of crustaceans

Braun, Prof., on the seeds of Fumariaceae

Brent, Mr., on house-tumblers

Britain, mammals of

Broca, Prof., on Natural Selection

Bronn, Prof., on duration of specific forms --various objections by

Brown, Robert, on classification

Brown-Sequard, on inherited mutilations

Busk, Mr., on the Polyzoa

Butterflies, mimetic

Buzareingues, on sterility of varieties

Cabbage, varieties of, crossed

Calceolaria

Canary-birds, sterility of hybrids

Cape de Verde Islands, productions of --plants of, on mountains

Cape of Good Hope, plants of

Carpenter, Dr., on foraminifera

Carthemus

Catasetum

Cats, with blue eyes, deaf
--variation in habits of
--curling tail when going to spring

Cattle destroying fir-trees
--destroyed by flies in Paraguay
--breeds of, locally extinct
--fertility of Indian and European breeds --Indian

Cave, inhabitants of, blind

Cecidomyia

Celts, proving antiquity of man

Centres of creation

Cephalopodae, structures of eyes
--development of

Cercopithecus, tail of

Ceroxylus laceratus

Cervulus

Cetacea, teeth and hair
--development of the whalebone

Cetaceans

Ceylon, plants of

Chalk formation

Characters, divergence of
--sexual, variable
--adaptive or analogical

Charlock

Checks to increase
--mutual

Chelae of Crustaceans

Chickens, instinctive tameness of

Chironomus, its asexual reproduction

Chthamalinae

Chthamalus, cretacean species of

Circumstances favourable to selection of domestic products --to natural selection

Cirripedes capable of crossing
--carapace aborted
--their ovigerous frena
--fossil
--larvae of

Claparede, Prof., on the hair-claspers of the Acaridae

Clarke, Rev. W.B., on old glaciers in Australia

Classification

Clift, Mr., on the succession of types

Climate, effects of, in checking increase of beings --adaptation of, to organisms

Climbing plants
--development of

Clover visited by bees

Cobites, intestine of

Cockroach

Collections, palaeontological, poor

Colour, influenced by climate
--in relation to attacks by flies

Columba livia, parent of domestic pigeons

Colymbetes

Compensation of growth

Compositae, flowers and seeds of
--outer and inner florets of
--male flowers of

Conclusion, general

Conditions, slight changes in, favourable to fertility

Convergence of genera

Coot

Cope, Prof., on the acceleration or retardation of the period of reproduction

Coral-islands, seeds drifted to
--reefs, indicating movements of earth

Corn-crake

Correlated variation in domestic productions

Coryanthes

Creation, single centres of

Crinum

Croll, Mr., on subaerial denudation
--on the age of our oldest formations --on alternate Glacial periods in the North and South

Crosses, reciprocal

Crossing of domestic animals, importance in altering breeds --advantages of
--unfavourable to selection

Cruger, Dr., on Coryanthes

Crustacea of New Zealand

Crustacean, blind
air-breathers

Crustaceans, their chelae

Cryptocerus

Ctenomys, blind

Cuckoo, instinct of

Cunningham, Mr., on the flight of the logger-headed duck

Currants, grafts of

Currents of sea, rate of

Cuvier on conditions of existence
--on fossil monkeys

Cuvier, Fred., on instinct

Cyclostoma, resisting salt water

Dana, Prof., on blind cave-animals
--on relations of crustaceans of Japan --on crustaceans of New Zealand

Dawson, Dr., on eozoon

De Candolle, Aug. Pyr., on struggle for existence --on umbelliferae
--on general affinities

De Candolle, Alph., on the variability of oaks --on low plants, widely dispersed
--on widely-ranging plants being variable --on naturalisation
--on winged seeds
--on Alpine species suddenly becoming rare --on distribution of plants with large seeds --on vegetation of Australia
--on fresh-water plants
--on insular plants

Degradation of rocks

Denudation, rate of
--of oldest rocks
--of granite areas

Development of ancient forms

Devonian system

Dianthus, fertility of crosses

Dimorphism in plants

Dirt on feet of birds

Dispersal, means of
--during Glacial period

Distribution, geographical
--means of

Disuse, effect of, under nature

Diversification of means for same general purpose

Division, physiological, of labour

Divergence of character

Dog, resemblance of jaw to that of the Thylacinus

Dogs, hairless, with imperfect teeth
--descended from several wild stocks
--domestic instincts of
--inherited civilisation of
--fertility of breeds together
--of crosses
--proportions of body in different breeds, when young

Domestication, variation under

Double flowers

Downing, Mr., on fruit-trees in America

Dragon-flies, intestines of

Drift-timber

Driver-ant

Drones killed by other bees

Duck, domestic, wings of, reduced
--beak of
--logger-headed

Duckweed

Dugong, affinities of

Dung-beetles with deficient tarsi

Dyticus

Earl, Mr., W., on the Malay Archipelago

Ears, drooping, in domestic animals
--rudimentary

Earth, seeds in roots of trees
--charged with seeds

Echinodermata, their pedicellariae

Eciton

Economy of organisation

Edentata, teeth and hair
--fossil species of

Edwards, Milne, on physiological division of labour --on gradations of structure

Edwards, on embryological characters

Eggs, young birds escaping from

Egypt, productions of, not modified

Electric organs

Elephant, rate of increase
--of Glacial period

Embryology

Eozoon Canadense

Epilipsy inherited

Existence, struggle for
--condition of

Extinction, as bearing on natural selection --of domestic varieties

Eye, structure of
--correction for aberration

Eyes, reduced, in moles

Fabre, M., on hymenoptera fighting
--on parasitic sphex
--on Sitaris

Falconer, Dr., on naturalisation of plants in India --on elephants and mastodons
--and Cautley on mammals of sub-Himalayan beds

Falkland Islands, wolf of

Faults

Faunas, marine

Fear, instinctive, in birds

Feet of birds, young molluscs adhering to

Fertilisation variously effected

Fertility of hybrids
--from slight changes in conditions
--of crossed varieties

Fir-trees destroyed by cattle
--pollen of

Fish, flying
--teleostean, sudden appearance of
--eating seeds
--fresh-water, distribution of

Fishes, ganoid, now confined to fresh water --ganoid, living in fresh water
--electric organs of
--of southern hemisphere

Flight, powers of, how acquired

Flint-tools, proving antiquity of man

Flower, Prof., on the larynx
--on Halitherium
--on the resemblance between the jaws of the dog and Thylacinus --on the homology of the feet of certain marsupials

Flowers, structure of
--in relation to crossing
--of composite and umbelliferae
--beauty of
--double

Flysch formation, destitute of organic remains

Forbes, Mr. D., on glacial action in the Andes

Forbes, E., on colours of shells
--on abrupt range of shells in depth
--on poorness of palaeontological collections --on continuous succession of genera
--on continental extensions
--on distribution during Glacial period --on parallelism in time and space

Forests, changes in, in America

Formation, Devonian
--Cambrian
--intermittent
--thickness of, in Britain

Formica
--rufescens
--sanguinea
--flava, neuter of

Forms, lowly organised, long enduring

Frena, ovigerous, of cirripedes

Fresh-water productions, dispersal of

Fries on species in large genera being closely allied to other species

Frigate-bird

Frogs on islands

Fruit-trees, gradual improvement of
--in United States
--varieties of, acclimatised in United States

Fuci, crossed

Fur, thicker in cold climates

Furze

Galapagos Archipelago, birds of
--productions of

Galaxias, its wide range

Galeopithecus

Game, increase of, checked by vermin

Gartner on sterility of hybrids
--on reciprocal crosses
--on crossed maize and verbascum
--on comparison of hybrids and mongrels

Gaudry, Prof., on intermediate genera of fossil mammals in Attica

Geese, fertility when crossed
--upland

Geikie, Mr., on subaerial denudation

Genealogy, important in classification

Generations, alternate

Geoffroy St. Hilaire, on balancement
--on homologous organs

Geoffroy St. Hilaire, Isidore, on variability of repeated parts --on correlation, in monstrosities
--on correlation
--on variable parts being often monstrous

Geographical distribution

Geography, ancient

Geology, future progress of
--imperfection of the record

Gervais, Prof., on Typotherium

Giraffe, tail of
--structure of

Glacial period
--affecting the North and South

Glands, mammary

Gmelin, on distribution

Godwin-Austin, Mr., on the Malay Archipelago

Goethe, on compensation of growth

Gomphia

Gooseberry, grafts of

Gould, Dr. Aug. A., on land-shells

Gould, Mr., on colours of birds
--on instincts of cuckoo
--on distribution of genera of birds

Gourds, crossed

Graba, on the Uria lacrymans

Grafting, capacity of

Granite, areas of denuded

Grasses, varieties of

Gray, Dr. Asa, on the variability of oaks --on man not causing variability
--on sexes of the holly
--on trees of the United States
--on naturalised plants in the United States --on aestivation
--on rarity of intermediate varieties --on Alpine plants

Gray, Dr. J.E., on striped mule

Grebe

Grimm, on asexual reproduction

Groups, aberrant

Grouse, colours of
--red, a doubtful species

Growth, compensation of

Gunther, Dr., on flat-fish
--on prehensile tails
--on the fishes of Panama
--on the range of fresh-water fishes
--on the limbs of Lepidosiren

Haast, Dr., on glaciers of New Zealand

Habit, effect of, under domestication --effect of, under nature
--diversified, of same species

Hackel, Prof., on classification and the lines of descent

Hair and teeth, correlated

Halitherium

Harcourt, Mr. E.V., on the birds of Madeira

Hartung, M., on boulders in the Azores

Hazel-nuts

Hearne, on habits of bears

Heath, changes in vegetation

Hector, Dr., on glaciers of New Zealand

Heer, Oswald, on ancient cultivated plants --on plants of Madeira

Helianthemum

Helix pomatia, resisting salt water

Helmholtz, M., on the imperfection of the human eye

Helosciadium

Hemionus, striped

Hensen, Dr., on the eyes of Cephalopods

Herbert, W., on struggle for existence --on sterility of hybrids

Hermaphrodites crossing

Heron eating seed

Heron, Sir R., on peacocks

Heusinger, on white animals poisoned by certain plants

Hewitt, Mr., on sterility of first crosses

Hildebrand, Prof., on the self-sterility of Corydalis

Hilgendorf, on intermediate varieties

Himalaya, glaciers of
--plants of

Hippeastrum

Hippocampus

Hofmeister, Prof., on the movements of plants

Holly-trees, sexes of

Hooker, Dr., on trees of New Zealand
--on acclimatisation of Himalayan trees --on flowers of umbelliferae
--on the position of ovules
--on glaciers of Himalaya
--on algae of New Zealand
--on vegetation at the base of the Himalaya --on plants of Tierra del Fuego
--on Australian plants
--on relations of flora of America
--on flora of the Antarctic lands
--on the plants of the Galapagos
--on glaciers of the Lebanon
--on man not causing variability
--on plants of mountains of Fernando Po

Hooks on palms
--on seeds, on islands

Hopkins, Mr., on denudation

Hornbill, remarkable instinct of

Horns, rudimentary

Horse, fossil in La Plata
--proportions of, when young

Horses destroyed by flies in Paraguay --striped

Horticulturists, selection applied by

Huber on cells of bees

Huber, P., on reason blended with instinct --on habitual nature of instincts
--on slave-making ants
--on Melipona domestica

Hudson, Mr., on the Ground-woodpecker of La Plata --on the Molothrus

Humble-bees, cells of

Hunter, J., on secondary sexual characters

Hutton, Captain, on crossed geese

Huxley, Prof., on structure of hermaphrodites --on the affinities of the Sirenia
--on forms connecting birds and reptiles --on homologous organs
--on the development of aphis

Hybrids and mongrels compared

Hybridism

Hydra, structure of

Hymenoptera, fighting

Hymenopterous insect, diving

Hyoseris

Ibla

Icebergs transporting seeds

Increase, rate of

Individuals, numbers favourable to selection --many, whether simultaneously created

Inheritance, laws of
--at corresponding ages

Insects, colour of, fitted for their stations --sea-side, colours of
--blind, in caves
--luminous
--their resemblance to certain objects --neuter

Instinct, not varying simultaneously with structure

Instincts, domestic

Intercrossing, advantages of

Islands, oceanic

Isolation favourable to selection

Japan, productions of

Java, plants of

Jones, Mr. J.M., on the birds of Bermuda

Jordain, M., on the eye-spots of star fishes

Jukes, Prof., on subaerial denudation

Jussieu on classification

Kentucky, caves of

Kerguelen-land, flora of

Kidney-bean, acclimatisation of

Kidneys of birds

Kirby, on tarsi deficient in beetles

Knight, Andrew, on cause of variation

Kolreuter, on intercrossing
--on the barberry
--on sterility of hybrids
--on reciprocal crosses
--on crossed varieties of nicotiana
--on crossing male and hermaphrodite flowers

Lamarck, on adaptive characters

Lancelet, eyes of

Landois, on the development of the wings of insects

Land-shells, distribution of
--of Madeira, naturalised
--resisting salt water

Languages, classification of

Lankester, Mr. E. Ray, on longevity
--on homologies

Lapse, great, of time

Larvae

Laurel, nectar secreted by the leaves

Laurentian formation

Laws of variation

Leech, varieties of

Leguminosae, nectar secreted by glands

Leibnitz, attack on Newton

Lepidosiren, limbs in a nascent condition

Lewes, Mr. G.H., on species not having changed in Egypt --on the Salamandra atra
--on many forms of life having been at first evolved

Life, struggle for

Lingula, Silurian

Linnaeus, aphorism of

Lion, mane of
--young of, striped

Lobelia fulgens

Lobelia, sterility of crosses

Lockwood, Mr., on the ova of the Hippocampus

Locusts transporting seeds

Logan, Sir W., on Laurentian formation

Lowe, Rev. R.T., on locusts visiting Madeira

Lowness, of structure connected with variability --related to wide distribution

Lubbock, Sir J., on the nerves of coccus --on secondary sexual characters
--on a diving hymenopterous insect
--on affinities
--on metamorphoses

Lucas, Dr. P., on inheritance
--on resemblance of child to parent

Lund and Clausen, on fossils of Brazil

Lyell, Sir C., on the struggle for existence --on modern changes of the earth
--on terrestrial animals not having been developed on islands --on a carboniferous land-shell
--on strata beneath Silurian system
--on the imperfection of the geological record --on the appearance of species
--on Barrande's colonies
--on tertiary formations of Europe and North America --on parallelism of tertiary formations --on transport of seeds by icebergs
--on great alternations of climate
--on the distribution of fresh-water shells --on land-shells of Madeira

Lyell and Dawson, on fossilized trees in Nova Scotia

Lythrum salicaria, trimorphic

Macleay, on analogical characters

Macrauchenia

McDonnell, Dr., on electric organs

Madeira, plants of
--beetles of, wingless
--fossil land-shells of
--birds of

Magpie tame in Norway

Males, fighting

Maize, crossed

Malay Archipelago, compared with Europe --mammals of

Malm, on flat-fish

Malpighiaceae, small imperfect flowers of

Mammae, their development
--rudimentary

Mammals, fossil, in secondary formation --insular

Man, origin of

Manatee, rudimentary nails of

Marsupials, fossil species of

Marsupials of Australia, structure of their feet

Martens, M., experiment on seeds

Martin, Mr. W.C., on striped mules

Masters, Dr., on Saponaria

Matteucci, on the electric organs of rays

Matthiola, reciprocal crosses of

Maurandia

Means of dispersal

Melipona domestica

Merrill, Dr., on the American cuckoo

Metamorphism of oldest rocks

Mice destroying bees
--acclimatisation of
--tails of

Miller, Prof., on the cells of bees

Mirabilis, crosses of

Missel-thrush

Mistletoe, complex relations of

Mivart, Mr., on the relation of hair and teeth --on the eyes of cephalopods
--various objections to Natural Selection --on abrupt modifications
--on the resemblance of the mouse and antechinus

Mocking-thrush of the Galapagos

Modification of species, not abrupt

Moles, blind

Molothrus, habits of

Mongrels, fertility and sterility of
--and hybrids compared

Monkeys, fossil

Monachanthus

Mons, Van, on the origin of fruit-trees

Monstrosities

Moquin-Tandon, on sea-side plants

Morphology

Morren, on the leaves of Oxalis

Moths, hybrid

Mozart, musical powers of

Mud, seeds in

Mules, striped

Muller, Adolph, on the instincts of the cuckoo

Muller, Dr. Ferdinand, on Alpine Australian plants

Muller, Fritz, on dimorphic crustaceans --on the lancelet
--on air-breathing crustaceans
--on the self-sterility of orchids
--on embryology in relation to classification --on the metamorphoses of crustaceans --on terrestrial and fresh-water organisms not undergoing any metamorphosis --on climbing plants

Multiplication of species not indefinite

Murchison, Sir, R., on the formations of Russia --on azoic formations
--on extinction

Murie, Dr., on the modification of the skull in old age

Murray, Mr. A., on cave-insects

Mustela vison

Myanthus

Myrmecocystus

Myrmica, eyes of

Nageli, on morphological characters

Nails, rudimentary

Nathusius, Von, on pigs

Natural history, future progress of
--selection
--system

Naturalisation of forms distinct from the indigenous species --in New Zealand

Naudin, on analagous variations in gourds --on hybrid gourds
--on reversion

Nautilus, Silurian

Nectar of plants

Nectaries, how formed

Nelumbium luteum

Nests, variation in

Neuter insects

New Zealand, productions of, not perfect --naturalised products of
--fossil birds of
--glaciers of
--crustaceans of
--algae of
--number of plants of
--flora of

Newman, Col., on humble-bees

Newton, Prof., on earth attached to a partridge's foot

Newton, Sir I., attacked for irreligion

Nicotiana, crossed varieties of
--certain species very sterile

Nitsche, Dr., on the Polyzoa

Noble, Mr., on fertility of Rhododendron

Nodules, phosphatic, in azoic rocks

Oak, varieties of

Onites apelles

Orchids, fertilisation of
--the development of their flowers
--forms of

Orchis, pollen of

Organisation, tendency to advance

Organs of extreme perfection
--electric, of fishes
--of little importance
--homologous
--rudiments of, and nascent

Ornithorhynchus, mammae of

Ostrich not capable of flight
--habit of laying eggs together
--American, two species of

Otter, habits of, how acquired

Ouzel, water

Owen, Prof., on birds not flying
--on vegetative repetition
--on variability of unusually developed parts --on the eyes of fishes
--on the swim-bladder of fishes
--on fossil horse of La Plata
--on generalised form
--on relation of ruminants and pachyderms --on fossil birds of New Zealand
--on succession of types
--on affinities of the dugong
--on homologous organs
--on the metamorphosis of cephalopods

Pacific Ocean, faunas of

Pacini, on electric organs

Paley, on no organ formed to give pain

Pallas, on the fertility of the domesticated descendants of wild stocks

Palm with hooks

Papaver bracteatum

Paraguay, cattle destroyed by flies

Parasites

Partridge, with ball of dirt attached to foot

Parts greatly developed, variable

Parus major

Passiflora

Peaches in United States

Pear, grafts of

Pedicellariae

Pelargonium, flowers of
--sterility of

Peloria

Pelvis of women

Period, glacial

Petrels, habits of

Phasianus, fertility of hybrids

Pheasant, young, wild

Pictet, Prof., on groups of species suddenly appearing --on rate of organic change
--on continuous succession of genera
--on close alliance of fossils in consecutive formations --on change in latest tertiary forms
--on early transitional links

Pierce, Mr., on varieties of wolves

Pigeons with feathered feet and skin between toes --breeds described, and origin of
--breeds of, how produced
--tumbler, not being able to get out of egg --reverting to blue colour
--instinct of tumbling
--young of

Pigs, black, not affected by the paint-root --modified by want of exercise

Pistil, rudimentary

Plants, poisonous, not affecting certain coloured animals --selection, applied to
--gradual improvement of
--not improved in barbarous countries --dimorphic
--destroyed by insects
--in midst of range, have to struggle with other plants --nectar of
--fleshy, on sea-shores
--climbing
--fresh-water, distribution of
--low in scale, widely distributed

Pleuronectidae, their structure

Plumage, laws of change in sexes of birds

Plums in the United States

Pointer dog, origin of
--habits of

Poison not affecting certain coloured animals

Poison, similar effect of, on animals and plants

Pollen of fir-trees
--transported by various means

Pollinia, their development

Polyzoa, their avicularia

Poole, Col., on striped hemionus

Potemogeton

Pouchet, on the colours of flat-fish

Prestwich, Mr., on English and French eocene formations

Proctotrupes

Proteolepas

Proteus

Psychology, future progress of

Pyrgoma, found in the chalk

Quagga, striped

Quatrefages, M., on hybrid moths

Quercus, variability of

Quince, grafts of

Rabbits, disposition of young

Races, domestic, characters of

Race-horses, Arab
--English

Radcliffe, Dr., the electrical organs of the torpedo

Ramond, on plants of Pyrenees

Ramsay, Prof., on subaerial denudation --on thickness of the British formations --on faults

Ramsay, Mr., on instincts of cuckoo

Ratio of increase

Rats, supplanting each other
--acclimatisation of
--blind, in cave

Rattle-snake

Reason and instinct

Recapitulation, general

Reciprocity of crosses

Record, geological, imperfect

Rengger, on flies destroying cattle

Reproduction, rate of

Resemblance, protective, of insects
--to parents in mongrels and hybrids

Reversion, law of inheritance
--in pigeons, to blue colour

Rhododendron, sterility of

Richard, Prof., on Aspicarpa

Richardson, Sir J., on structure of squirrels --on fishes of the southern hemisphere

Robinia, grafts of

Rodents, blind

Rogers, Prof., Map of N. America

Rudimentary organs

Rudiments important for classification

Rutimeyer, on Indian cattle

Sageret, on grafts

Salamandra atra

Saliva used in nests

Salmons, males fighting, and hooked jaws of

Salt-water, how far injurious to seeds --not destructive to land-shells

Salter, Mr., on early death of hybrid embryos

Salvin, Mr., on the beaks of ducks

Saurophagus sulphuratus

Schacht, Prof., on Phyllotaxy

Schiodte, on blind insects
--on flat-fish

Schlegel, on snakes

Schobl, Dr., on the ears of mice

Scott, Mr. J., on the self-sterility of orchids --on the crossing of varieties of verbascum

Sea-water, how far injurious to seeds --not destructive to land-shells

Sebright, Sir J., on crossed animals

Sedgwick, Prof., on groups of species suddenly appearing

Seedlings destroyed by insects

Seeds, nutriment in
--winged
--means of dissemination
--power of resisting salt-water
--in crops and intestines of birds
--eaten by fish
--in mud
--hooked, on islands

Selection of domestic products
--principle not of recent origin
--unconscious
--natural
--sexual
--objections to term
--natural, has not induced sterility

Sexes, relations of

Sexual characters variable
--selection

Sheep, Merino, their selection
--two sub-breeds, unintentionally produced --mountain, varieties of

Shells, colours of, littoral
--hinges of
--seldom embedded

Shells, fresh-water, long retain the same forms --fresh-water, dispersal of
--of Madeira
--land, distribution of
--land, resisting salt water

Shrew-mouse

Silene, infertility of crosses

Silliman, Prof., on blind rat

Sirenia, their affinities

Sitaris, metamorphosis of

Skulls of young mammals

Slave-making instinct

Smith, Col. Hamilton, on striped horses

Smith, Dr., on the Polyzoa

Smith, Mr. Fred., on slave-making ants --on neuter ants

Snake with tooth for cutting through egg-shell

Somerville, Lord, on selection of sheep

Sorbus, grafts of

Sorex

Spaniel, King Charles' breed

Specialisation of organs

Species, polymorphic
--dominant
--common, variable
--in large genera variable
--groups of, suddenly appearing
--beneath Silurian formations
--successively appearing
--changing simultaneously throughout the world

Spencer, Lord, on increase in size of cattle

Spencer, Mr. Herbert, on the first steps in differentiation --on the tendency to an equilibrium in all forces

Sphex, parasitic

Spiders, development of

Sports in plants

Sprengel, C.C., on crossing
--on ray-florets

Squalodon

Squirrels, gradations in structure

Staffordshire, heath, changes in

Stag-beetles, fighting

Star fishes, eyes of
--their pedicellariae

Sterility from changed conditions of life --of hybrids
--laws of
--causes of
--from unfavourable conditions
--not induced through natural selection

St. Helena, productions of

St. Hilaire, Aug., on variability of certain plants --on classification

St. John, Mr., on habits of cats

Sting of bee

Stocks, aboriginal, of domestic animals

Strata, thickness of, in Britain

Stripes on horses

Structure, degrees of utility of

Struggle for existence

Succession, geological
--of types in same areas

Swallow, one species supplanting another

Swaysland, Mr., on earth adhering to the feet of migratory birds

Swifts, nests of

Swim-bladder

Switzerland, lake inhabitants of

System, natural

Tail of giraffe
--of aquatic animals
--prehensile
--rudimentary

Tanais, dimorphic

Tarsi deficient

Tausch, Dr., on umbelliferae

Teeth and hair correlated
--rudimentary, in embryonic calf

Tegetmeier, Mr., on cells of bees

Temminck, on distribution aiding classification

Tendrils, their development

Thompson, Sir W., on the age of the habitable world --on the consolidation of the crust of the earth

Thouin, on grafts

Thrush, aquatic species of
--mocking, of the Galapagos
--young of, spotted
--nest of

Thuret, M., on crossed fuci

Thwaites, Mr., on acclimatisation

Thylacinus

Tierra del Fuego, dogs of
--plants of

Timber-drift

Time, lapse of
--by itself not causing modification

Titmouse

Toads on islands

Tobacco, crossed varieties of

Tomes, Mr., on the distribution of bats

Transitions in varieties rare

Traquair, Dr., on flat-fish

Trautschold, on intermediate varieties

Trees on islands belong to peculiar orders --with separated sexes

Trifolium pratense
--incarnatum

Trigonia

Trilobites
--sudden extinction of

Trimen, Mr., on imitating-insects

Trimorphism in plants

Troglodytes

Tuco-tuco, blind

Tumbler pigeons, habits of, hereditary --young of

Turkey-cock, tuft of hair on breast

Turkey, naked skin on head
--young of, instinctively wild

Turnip and cabbage, analogous variations of

Type, unity of

Types, succession of, in same areas

Typotherium

Udders enlarged by use
--rudimentary

Ulex, young leaves of

Umbelliferae, flowers and seeds of
--outer and inner florets of

Unity of type

Uria lacrymans

Use, effects of
--under domestication
--in a state of nature

Utility, how far important in the construction of each part

Valenciennes, on fresh-water fish

Variability of mongrels and hybrids

Variation, under domestication
--caused by reproductive system being affected by conditions of life --under nature
--laws of
--correlated

Variations appear at corresponding ages --analogous in distinct species

Varieties, natural
--struggle between
--domestic, extinction of
--transitional, rarity of

Varieties, when crossed
--fertile
--sterile
--classification of

Verbascum, sterility of
--varieties of, crossed

Verlot, M., on double stocks

Verneuil, M. de, on the succession of species

Vibracula of the Polyzoa

Viola, small imperfect flowers of
--tricolor

Virchow, on the structure of the crystalline lens

Virginia, pigs of

Volcanic islands, denudation of

Vulture, naked skin on head

Wading-birds

Wagner, Dr., on Cecidomyia

Wagner, Moritz, on the importance of isolation

Wallace, Mr., on origin of species
--on the limit of variation under domestication --on dimorphic lepidoptera
--on races in the Malay Archipelago
--on the improvement of the eye
--on the walking-stick insect
--on laws of geographical distribution --on the Malay Archipelago
--on mimetic animals

Walsh, Mr. B.D., on phytophagic forms --on equal variability

Water, fresh, productions of

Water-hen

Waterhouse, Mr., on Australian marsupials --on greatly developed parts being variable --on the cells of bees
--on general affinities

Water-ouzel

Watson, Mr. H.C., on range of varieties of British plants --on acclimatisation
--on flora of Azores
--on rarity of intermediate varieties --on Alpine plants
--on convergence
--on the indefinite multiplication of species

Weale, Mr., on locusts transporting seeds

Web of feet in water-birds

Weismann, Prof., on the causes of variability --on rudimentary organs

West Indian islands, mammals of

Westwood, on species in large genera being closely allied to others --on the tarsi of Engidae
--on the antennae of hymenopterous insects

Whales

Wheat, varieties of

White Mountains, flora of

Whittaker, Mr., on lines of escarpment

Wichura, Max, on hybrids

Wings, reduction of size
--of insects homologous with branchiae --rudimentary, in insects

Wolf crossed with dog
--of Falkland Isles

Wollaston, Mr., on varieties of insects --on fossil varieties of shells in Madeira

Wollaston, Mr., on colours of insects on sea-shore --on wingless beetles
--on rarity of intermediate varieties --on insular insects
--on land-shells of Madeira naturalised

Wolves, varieties of

Woodcock with earth attached to leg

Woodpecker, habits of
--green colour of

Woodward, Mr., on the duration of specific forms --on Pyrgoma
--on the continuous succession of genera --on the succession of types

World, species changing simultaneously throughout

Wright, Mr. Chauncey, on the giraffe
--on abrupt modifications

Wrens, nest of

Wyman, Prof., on correlation of colour and effects of poison --on the cells of the bee

Youatt, Mr., on selection
--on sub-breeds of sheep
--on rudimentary horns in young cattle

Zanthoxylon

Zebra, stripes on

Zeuglodons






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